Accrued interest: Interest that has been earned but not received.
Accumulation plan: An arrangement which enables an investor to purchase a set dollar amount of mutual fund units on a regular schedule.
Adjusted cost base: The price you paid for your investment plus any adjustments, such as distributions.
Annual report: A financial report sent yearly to a publicly-held company’s shareholders. This report must be audited by independent auditors.
Annuitant: An individual who purchases an annuity and will receive regularly scheduled payments from that annuity.
Annuity: A contract that guarantees a series of payments in exchange for a lump sum investment.
Ask price: The price at which an investor is willing to sell shares in a publicly-listed company as quoted by a stock exchange.
Back-end load: A sales charge levied when mutual fund units are redeemed.
Balance sheet: A financial statement showing the nature and amount of a company’s assets, liabilities and shareholders’ equity.
Balanced fund: A mutual fund that has an investment policy of balancing its portfolio by including bonds and shares in varying proportions based on the fund’s investment policies.
Bank Rate: The rate at which the Bank of Canada makes short-term loans to chartered banks and other financial institutions, and the benchmark for consumer lending prime rates set by financial institutions.
Bear market: A period when the value of the securities market, or a sector of the securities market, is in general decline.
Beta: A statistical term used to illustrate the relationship of the price of an individual security or mutual fund unit to similar securities or financial market indexes.
Bid price: An offer by an investor to buy a specific quantity of securities at a specified price.
Blue chip: A term to describe high-grade equity securities.
Board of directors: A group of people elected by the shareholders of a company and empowered to act on their behalf in the management of the company’s affairs. Directors are normally elected each year at the annual general meeting.
Bond: A long-term debt instrument with the promise to pay a specified amount of interest and to return the principal amount on a specified maturity date.
Bond fund: An investment fund that holds mostly bonds.
Book value: 1) The value of net assets that belong to a company’s shareholders, as stated on the balance sheet of the company. 2) The price you paid for your investment plus any adjustments, such as distributions, that have been reinvested to buy more units.
Broker: An agent who executes investors’ orders to buy and sell securities, commodities or other property. A commission is generally charged by the agent to the investor for this service.
Bull market: A period when the value of the securities market, or a sector of the securities market, is generally rising.
Buying on margin: Purchasing a security partly with borrowed money.
Canada Savings Bond (CSB): A bond issued each year by the federal government. These bonds can be cashed in at any time for their full face value.
Capital: Generally, the money or property used in a business. The term is also used to apply to cash in reserve, savings or other property of value.
Capital Cost Allowance (CCA): A taxation term, equivalent to depreciation, which makes allowance for the declining value of a fixed asset over time (such as computer equipment becoming obsolete).
Capital gains: An increase in the value of a capital asset (such as an investment) so that it is worth more than the purchase price. The gain is realized when the asset is sold.
Capital loss: The loss that results when a capital asset is sold for less than its purchase price.
Capital market: The financial market for buying and selling securities, such as stocks and bonds.
Capital stock: All ownership shares of a company, both common and preferred.
Capitalization: The total amount of all securities, including long-term debt, common and preferred stock issued by a company.
Cash surrender value: The amount of cash a person may obtain by voluntarily surrendering a life insurance policy.
Certificate: A document providing evidence of ownership of a security such as a stock or bond.
Closed-end fund: A fund company that issues a fixed number of shares. Its shares are bought and sold on stock exchanges or the over-the-counter market but are not redeemable.
Closing market value: The market value of your investment at the end of the period referred to on your statement.
Commercial paper: An interest-bearing promissory note issued by a corporation with a term of a few days to one year. Commercial paper is generally not secured by company assets.
Common stock: A security representing ownership of a corporation’s assets. Voting rights are normally accorded to holders of common stock.
Compounding: The process by which income is earned on income that has previously been earned. The end value of the investment includes both the original amount invested and the reinvested income.
Consumer Price Index (CPI): A statistical device that measures the change in the cost of living for consumers. It is used to illustrate the percentage that prices rise or fall or the amount of inflation that has taken place.
Contributions: The amount of money you have placed in an investment fund. Also referred to as purchases.
Convertible: A security that can be exchanged for another. Bonds or preferred shares are often convertible into common shares of the same company.
Coupon rate: The annual interest rate of a bond.
Current asset: An asset that can be converted into cash within 12 months.
Current liability: A liability that must to be paid within 12 months.
Current yield: The annual rate of return that an investor purchasing a security at its market price would realize. This is the annual income from a security divided by the current price of the security. It is also known as the return on investment.
Dealer firm: A securities firm that may provide securities trading, underwriting and research services. Also known as investment dealer.
Debenture: A bond unsecured by any pledge of property. It is supported by the general credit of the issuing corporation.
Debt: An obligation to repay a sum of principal, plus interest. In corporate terms, debt often refers to bonds or similar securities.
Deferral: A form of tax sheltering that results from an investment that offers deductions during the investor’s high-income years and/or postpones capital gains or other income until after retirement or to another period when the income level is expected to change. A Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) is an example of this.
Defined benefit pension plan: A registered pension plan that guarantees a specific income at retirement, based on earnings and the number of years worked.
Defined contribution pension plan: a registered pension plan that does not promise an employee a specified benefit upon retirement. Benefits depend on the performance of investments made with contributions to the plan.
Denomination: The principal amount, or value at maturity, of a debt obligation. Also known as the par value or face value.
Depreciation: Charges made against earnings to write off the cost of a fixed asset over its estimated useful life. Depreciation does not represent a cash outlay. It is a bookkeeping entry representing the decline in value of an asset that is wearing out.
Distributions: Payments to investors by a mutual fund from income or from profit realized from sales of securities.
Diversification: The investment in a number of different securities. This reduces the risks inherent in investing. Diversification may be among types of securities, companies, industries or geographic locations.
Dividend: A per-share payment designated by a company’s board of directors to be distributed among shareholders. For preferred shares, it is generally a fixed amount. For common shares, the dividend varies with the fortunes of the company and the amount of cash on hand. It may be omitted if business is poor or the directors withhold earnings to invest in plant and equipment.
Dividend fund: A mutual fund that invests in common and preferred shares of senior Canadian corporations with a history of regular dividend payments at above average rates.
Dividend tax credit: An income tax credit available to investors who earn dividend income through investments in the shares of Canadian Corporations.
Dollar cost averaging: A principle of investing which entails the use of equal amounts for investment at regular intervals in the hope of reducing average share cost by acquiring more shares in periods of lower securities prices and fewer shares in periods of higher securities prices.
Earned income: For tax purposes, earned income is generally the money made by an individual from employment. It also includes some taxable benefits. Earned income is used as the basis for calculating RRSP contribution limits.
Earnings statement: A financial statement showing the income and expenses of a business over a period of time. Also known as an income statement or profit and loss statement.
Equity: The net worth of a company. This represents the ownership interest of the shareholders (common and preferred) of a company. For this reason, shares are often known as equities.
Face value: The principal amount, or value at maturity, of a debt obligation. Also known as the par value or denomination.
Fair market value: The price a willing buyer would pay a willing seller if neither was under any compulsion to buy or sell. The standard at which property is valued for a deemed disposition.
Fiduciary: An individual or institution occupying a position of trust. An executor, administrator or trustee.
Financial planner: A person who helps clients meet their long-term financial objectives by analyzing the client’s status and setting a program to achieve that client’s goals
Financial advisor: A person who provides financial advice or guidance to clients to help them reach their financial goals. Also known as an investment advisor.
Fixed assets: Assets of a long-term nature, such as land and buildings.
Fixed dollar withdrawal plan: A plan that provides the mutual fund investor with fixed-dollar payments at specified intervals, usually monthly or quarterly.
Fixed liability: Any corporate liability that will not mature within the following fiscal period. For example, long-term mortgages or outstanding bonds.
Fixed income investments: Investments that generate a fixed amount of income that does not vary over the life of the investment.
Fixed-period withdrawal plan: A plan through which the mutual fund investor’s holdings are fully depleted through regular withdrawals over a set period of time. A specific amount of capital, together with accrued income, is systematically exhausted.
Front-end load: A sales charge levied on the purchase of mutual fund units.
Fund Facts: Fund Facts is a document that fund managers are required to create for each mutual fund that they create. The purpose of Fund Facts is to make it easier for investors to find and use key information about individual mutual funds. Each Fund Facts is in plain language, no more than two pages double-sided and highlights key information for investors, including past performance, risks, and the costs of investing in the mutual fund.
Fund manager: A company that oversees securities. The fund manager oversees the operation of investment funds, including deciding which securities to purchase, and in what quantities, and when to buy and sell the securities. These decisions are based on the stated objective and strategy of the fund. An investment fund offers investors a wider selection of investment opportunities, management expertise and lower investment fees than investors could access on their own.
Fund of funds: A mutual fund that invests in other mutual funds. The investor costs are contained in the Management Expense Ratio (MER) on the fund that the investor owns directly; s/he does not pay the aggregate of all MERs in underlying funds. This is in accordance with Section 15.2 of National Instrument 81-106: Investment Fund Continuous Disclosure, which is a specific rule on the calculation of the MER for a fund that holds funds.
Growth stocks: Shares of companies whose earnings are expected to increase at an above-average rate.
Income funds: Mutual funds that invest primarily in fixed-income securities such as bonds, mortgages and preferred shares. Their primary objective is to produce income for investors while preserving capital.
Index fund: A mutual fund that matches its portfolio to that of a specific financial market index, with the objective of duplicating the general performance of the market in which it invests.
Inflation: A condition of increasing prices. In Canada, inflation is generally measured by the Consumer Price Index.
Interest: Payments made by a borrower to a lender for the use of the lender’s money. A corporation pays interest on bonds to its bondholders.
International fund: A mutual fund that invests in securities from a number of countries.
Investment advisor: A person who provides financial advice or guidance to clients to help them reach their financial goals. Also known as a financial advisor.
Investment dealer: A securities firm that may provide securities trading, underwriting and research services. Also known as dealer firm.
Investment fund: A pool of money belonging to many investors that is used to collectively purchase stocks, bonds or other securities. The most common type of investment fund is a mutual fund, but there are other specialized types.
Investment fund manager: A person or company that directs the business, operations or affairs of an investment fund.
(The) Investment Funds Institute of Canada (IFIC): IFIC is the voice of Canada’s investment funds industry. IFIC brings together 150 organizations, including fund managers and distributors and industry service organizations, to foster a strong, stable investment sector where investors can realize their financial goals. By connecting Canada’s savers to Canada’s economy, our industry contributes significantly to Canadian economic growth and job creation. The organization is proud to have served Canadian financial consumers for more than 50 years.
Loads: In the case of mutual funds, these are commissions charged to holders of fund units. Also known as sales charges.
Leverage: The use of various financial instruments or borrowed capital, such as margin, to increase the amount invested.
Liabilities: All debts or amounts owing by a company in the form of accounts payable, loans, mortgages and long-term debts.
Life annuity: An annuity under which payments are guaranteed for the life of the annuitant.
Liquidity: Refers to the ease with which an investment may be converted to cash at a reasonable price.
Management company: a person or company who provides investment advice under a management contract.
Management Expense Ratio (MER): The MER tells an investor the cost of operating and distributing a mutual fund. It is expressed as a percentage of fund’s average total assets, e.g. 2.1%. In almost all cases, the MER includes a payment to the investor’s financial advisor.
Management fee: The sum paid to the fund manager by the investment fund for supervising its portfolio and administering its operations.
Margin: (1) Money that is borrowed for the purpose of purchasing securities. (2) The amount of equity contributed by the investor as a percentage of the current market value of the securities.
Marginal tax rate: The rate of tax on the last dollar of taxable income.
Market index: A vehicle used to denote trends in securities markets. The most popular in Canada is the Toronto Stock Exchange 300 Composite Index (TSE 300).
Market price: In the case of a security, market price is usually considered the last reported price at which the stock or bond is sold.
Market Value: The price at which an investment can be sold at a specific point in time. The market value of your investment funds changes daily. Therefore, the market value of your funds will always be linked to a specific date, such as the beginning of a statement period or the date of purchase.
Maturity: The date at which a loan or bond or debenture comes due and must be redeemed or paid off.
Money market: A sector of the capital market where short-term obligations, such as Treasury bills, commercial paper and bankers’ acceptances, are bought and sold.
Money market fund: A type of mutual fund that invests primarily in treasury bills and other low-risk, short-term investments.
Money purchase pension plan: Another term for defined contribution pension plan.
Mortgage fund: A mutual fund that invests in mortgages. Portfolios of mortgage funds usually consist of first mortgages on Canadian residential property, although some funds also invest in commercial mortgages.
Mortgage-backed securities: Certificates that represent ownership in a pool of mortgages. The holders of these securities receive regular payments of principal and interest.
Mutual fund: An investment vehicle whose primary purpose is to invest money provided by its security holders according to its investment objectives. About 40 per cent of Canadian households—from first-time investors to long-term savers—rely on mutual funds to build their savings.
Net asset value: The value of all the holdings of a mutual fund less the fund’s liabilities.
Net asset value per share: Net asset value of a mutual fund divided by the number of shares or units outstanding. This represents the base value of a share of unit of a fund and is commonly abbreviated to NAVPS.
Open-end fund: An open-end mutual fund continuously issues and redeems units, so the number of units outstanding varies from day to day. Most mutual funds are open-ended.
Opening Market Value: The market value of a fund at the beginning of the period referred to on your statement.
Option: The right or obligation to buy or sell a specific quantity of a security at a specific price within a stipulated period of time.
Par value: The principal amount, or value at maturity, of a debt obligation. It is also known as the denomination or face value. Preferred shares may also have par value, which indicates the value of assets each share would be entitled to if a company were liquidated.
Pension adjustment: An amount that reduces the allowable contribution limit to an RRSP based on the benefits earned from the employee’s pension plan or deferred profit sharing plan. An individual’s pension adjustment can be found on a T4 statement and on a Revenue Canada Notice of Assessment.
Pension plan: A formal arrangement through which the employer, and in most cases the employee, contribute to a fund to provide the employee with a lifetime income after retirement.
Portfolio: All the securities which an investment company or an individual investor owns.
Preferred share: An ownership security, senior to the common stock of a corporation, with preferred claim on assets in case of liquidation and a specified annual dividend.
Premium: The amount by which a bond’s selling price exceeds its face value. Also the amounts paid to keep an insurance policy in force.
Present value: The current worth of an amount to be received in the future. In the case of an annuity, present value is the current worth of a series of equal payments to be made in the future.
Price earnings ratio: The market price of a common share divided by its earnings per share for 12 months.
Principal: The person for whom a broker executes an order, or a dealer buying or selling for his or her own account. Also, an individual’s capital or the face amount of a bond.
Promissory note: A written, signed promise by one party to pay another party a sum of money. The promissory note outlines all the terms of the agreement, include when the money is to be paid and the interest rate.
Prospectus: The legal document describing securities for sale, including information with respect to the issuing corporation or other legal entity’s operations, management etc.
Ratio withdrawal plan: A type of mutual fund withdrawal plan that provides investors with an income based on a percentage of the value of units held.
Real estate fund: A mutual fund that invests primarily in residential and/or commercial real estate to produce income and capital gains for its unitholders.
Real estate investment trust: A closed-end investment company that specializes in real estate or mortgage investments.
Realized gains or losses: When an investor sells an investment (such as a mutual fund), the investor realizes any gain or loss in the investment’s value. Before the investment is sold, its value could change many times, but the investor does not benefit from the gain (or lose from the decline) until s/he actually sells it.
Redeemable shares: Preferred shares or bonds that give the issuing corporation an option (or obligation) to repurchase securities at a stated price. These are also known as callable securities because the issuing corporation can call them in.
Redemptions: Amounts that you have withdrawn from an investment fund.
Registered education savings plan (RESP): A plan that enables a contributor, on a tax deferred basis, to accumulate assets on behalf of a beneficiary to pay for a post secondary education.
Registered retirement income fund (RRIF): A maturity option available for RRSP assets to pay out a prescribed amount of income each year at retirement while continuing to shelter the remaining assets from tax.
Registered retirement savings plan (RRSP): A retirement savings plan to hold amounts deducted from taxable income, within certain limits, in a tax-deferred state. The last day you can make a contribution to your RRSP is December 31 of the year you turn 71 year of age.
Retained earnings: The portion of net earnings not paid out as dividends but retained by the company to be reinvested in the business or to pay debt.
Retractable: Bonds or preferred shares that allow the holder to require the issuer to redeem the security before the maturity date.
Rights: Options granted to shareholders to purchase additional shares directly from the company concerned. Rights are issued to shareholders in proportion to the securities they may hold in a company.
Sales charge: In the case of mutual funds, these are commissions charged to holders of fund units, usually based on the purchase or redemption price. Sales charges are also known as loads.
Securities Act: Provincial legislation regulating the underwriting, distribution and sale of securities.
Shares: A document signifying part ownership in a company. The terms share and stock are often used interchangeably.
Shareholders’ equity: The amount of a corporation’s assets belonging to its shareholders (both common and preferred) after allowance for any prior claim.
Short selling: The sale of a security made by an investor who does not own the security. The short sale is made in expectation of a decline in the price of a security, which would allow the investor to then purchase the shares at a lower price. Short sellers make money if the stock price declines, and lose money if the stock price increases.
Simplified prospectus: An abbreviated and simplified prospectus distributed by mutual funds to purchasers and potential purchasers of units or shares (see prospectus).
Specialty fund: A mutual fund that concentrates its investments on a specific industrial or economic sector or a defined geographical area.
Spread: The difference between the interest rate a financial institution pays to people who deposit money and the interest rate the financial institution charges people who borrow money.
Stocks: A document signifying part ownership in a company. The terms share and stock are often used interchangeably.
Stock options: The right (but not the obligation) to purchase a corporation’s stock at a specified price within a specific time period. If the stock price increases, the person holding the option could exercise his/her right to purchase the stock and make a profit. If the stock price does not increase, the person does not have to exercise his/her right to purchase the stock.
Strip bonds: The capital portion of a bond from which the coupons have been stripped. The holder of the strip bond is entitled to its par value at maturity but not to the annual interest payments.
Tax credit: An income tax credit that directly reduces the amount of income tax paid by offsetting other income tax liabilities.
Tax deduction: A reduction of total income before the amount of income tax payable is calculated.
Trade: A securities transaction.
Trading expense ratio (TER): The TER is the cost of trading securities in a fund. This cost is not included in the fund’s management expense ratio (MER). The TER is expressed as a percentage of fund’s average total assets (e.g., 0.2%). You can find the TER of a fund in the Fund Facts document for the fund.
[Note: In the U.S. and many other countries, the abbreviation TER has an entirely different meaning: it is short for “total expense ratio”. The U.S. TER differs from Canada’s MER because it generally includes management costs but not distribution costs, while the Canadian MER includes both management and distribution costs.]
Treasury bill (T-bill): Short-term government debt. Treasury bills pay no interest but are sold at a discount. The difference between the discount price and par value is the return to be received by the investor.
Underwriter: An investment firm that purchases a security directly from its issuer for resale to other investment firms or the public or sells for such issuer to the public.
Unit trust: An unincorporated fund whose organizational structure permits the conduit treatment of income realized by the fund. The term is used synonymously with mutual fund in the UK.
Unrealized gains or losses: Unrealized gains or losses occur when a stock’s value changes after an investor has bought it, but before s/he sells it. If the stock value rises, the investor has an unrealized gain. If the stock value decreases, the investor has an unrealized loss. When the investor sells, the stock, s/he “realizes” the gain or loss.
Variable life annuity: An annuity providing a fluctuating level of payments, depending on the performance of its underlying investments.
Vesting: In pension terms, the right of an employee to all or part of the employer’s contributions, whether in the form of cash or as a deferred pension.
Volatility: The degree and speed of changes in an investment’s value over a given period of time. Investments that change in value gradually, or minimally, are said to have lower volatility than those that change rapidly or significantly and frequently during the same time period. Volatility is usually measured historically – how an investment has acted in the past – and that behaviour suggests how the investment may behave in the future, although no one can predict the future.
Warrant: Certificates allowing the holder the opportunity to buy shares in a company at a stated price over a specified period. Warrants are usually issued in conjunction with a new issue of bonds, preferred shares or common shares.
Yield: Annual rate of return received on investments, usually expressed as a percentage of the market price of the security.
Yield curve: A graphic representation of the relationship among yields of similar bonds of differing maturities.
Zero coupon bond: A bond that has had its coupons removed and pays no interest and is initially sold at a discount to the principal value.